Final observations
expenses with self generated income. It is instructive to note that although the GU
is the biggest newspaper website in the United Kingdom, with 40 million page prints
and 4 million unique users a month, it is losing money. The Scott Trust owns the
Guardian and the Guardian Unlimited so they do not have to show profits, but "even
trust funded media have to be commercially viable and at the same time they have
to compete with other media for the audience s attention," said Emily Bell, the editor
of GU. 
This is true for the other two cases as well, i.e. the E VRT and the UK Online
initiative. Both receive public funding for their operations and therefore rather use a
cost model than a profit model but they are made accountable for it. The Flemish
public broadcasters  experiment with interactive TV for instance, will most likely not
be continued if user acceptance in the pilot is low. All existing and new content
players, whether they are private or public, are competing for the limited attention
and time of the users/viewers/citizens. Increased competition can mean for
instance, that your need to look for new clients. Guardian Unlimited for instance,
was able to attract a new audience for its website outside the readership of its
associated newspapers. Almost half of its web users are not regular readers of the
Guardian and a majority of them is a not a regular reader of the Observer. This
points also to the notion of complementarity. 
The Guardian Unlimited is not a simple copy of its newspapers. One can find most
daily and weekly sections of the Guardian Newspapers online as well. Few articles
from the newspaper are omitted from the site, usually for copyright reasons, but the
website is said to offer more, i.e. a service that will have more immediacy (e.g.
breaking news), that will be more interactive (chats, online discussion with
journalists/columnists, politicians, arts people, etc.) in order to build a community
around the Guardian. The Guardian Unlimited is seen as a complement to the
printed papers (See also MUDIA Benchmarking Study D2.2). The staff at UK Online
for instance, does not see itself as a competitor of the traditional media but rather as
an additional source of information and news on the activities of the UK government.
Complementarity between the offline and online world is more and more regarded
to be a fruitful and realistic strategy. It goes against overly optimistic or pessimistic
assessments of the potential of change of digital technologies. One could argue that
during the Internet hype, the Holy Grail was in online media, while the aftermath
coincided with the return to offline media (See MUDIA D1.2 for the different
scenarios). Now a complementary strategy between offline and online media,
between different delivery platforms (PC/Internet, mobile, PDA, digital TV, etc.) and
between different actors (media, net native & non sector) is seen as a promising
way forward, as raised in the MUDIA WP 1 Validation Workshop Report (D4.2).
Complementary assets however, are related to policy concerns of cross ownership
and market dominance (See also MUDIA Benchmarking Study D2.2). 
Additional to complementarity (in supply and use) between the offline and online
world, other elements of it popped up in the case studies. Transitions Online for
instance, collaborates with the established traditional media rather than competing
with them. Many media organisations can not afford permanent correspondents in
all the post communist countries so "if we co operate, we get exposure, they get the
expertise", said TOL staff, referring for instance to recent deals with and
the Washington Post. Other forms of collaboration are observed in the UK Online
case and the E VRT case. The UK Online objective of getting the UK citizens online



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