Final observations
hype, industry and business oriented drivers were seen as primary. Now, users are
perceived to come back into play, but in co existence with content push. This may
signal a realistic, longer term phase of change in the media. 
This phase does not seem to entail a paradigmatic shift though, according to Mudia
D1.3 on users  roles in online media. The many different notions of interactivity seem
to be just tools, albeit strategically important, that allow community building and
loyalty rather than indicating a radical change in media value chains, at least in the
short term. The case studies clearly confirm that observation. E VRT continues to
push its content but towards the set top box rather than towards it viewers. The latter
have more control of what to watch and when to watch however, and can also view the
programs in itemised ways. Transitions Online and Guardian Unlimited still favour
the editorial content model. User feedback and interactions are welcomed but ultimately,
editors and journalist decide what to publish where, not the users or the number of hits. 
Customisation services are considered by most of the case studies, but a careful
balance needs to be looked for between gathering user data (and requesting for user
information) and customising the content supply. 
Mudia s Deliverable 3.4 also raised the issue of the user of traditional and new media
formats online; with some interesting conclusions that coincide with those raised in
other areas of the project. The case studies here present interesting uses of new
technology by organisations and companies that have dealt with the user in a very
traditional way.
Digital divide
Governments world wide are addressing the digital divide, the objective if providing
access to (online) digital media and services to as many people as possible. The
Flemish government instructed the E VRT to tackle this. It is also high on the agenda
of UK Online. Instructive is that both cases show different developments paths in
trying to bridge the divide but also that in the future, these paths will probably
converge. The UK Online initiative is today Internet and PC based while E VRT
provides access to Internet via the television, in collaboration with Belgacom. The
former however, is looking into digital terrestrial television since not everyone has a
computer at home while the latter plans to re use its rich media content developed
for DBV T on the Internet. The ultimate goal for both is to provide easy and multi 
channel access to media and government information and services to as many
people as possible, by as many distribution channels as possible, to as many
technological platforms as possible. 
Five different companies and organisations show five different ways of
experimenting with multimedia innovation enabled by digital technologies. All of
them are moving towards becoming information and news producers that use all
imaginable and possible ways to distribute (in different formats and through different
channels) their available content. The cases illustrate the complexities involved in
initiating and managing change. They highlight that multimedia innovation needs to
be addressed at different levels and that all levels need to be right: technologies,
applications, users, management, human resources and partnerships. They make
clear that the multimedia news and information landscape is changing rapidly and
intensively but also that many things stay the same. 



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