T
UITION 
F
EES
.................................................................................................................................................. 92 
Open and Free Courses ............................................................................................................................. 93 
Both Free Courses and Tuition Courses.................................................................................................... 94 
Same Price as Traditional Courses............................................................................................................ 94 
Variable Prices and Discounts .................................................................................................................. 95 
Tuition Fees per Credit .............................................................................................................................. 95 
Tuition Fees per Course............................................................................................................................. 96 
Tuition Fees per Semester.......................................................................................................................... 96 
Tuition Fees per Degree or Certificate ...................................................................................................... 96 
O
THER 
F
INANCIAL 
I
SSUES
............................................................................................................................... 97 
CHAPTER 7. PEDAGOGICAL ISSUES IN ONLINE EDUCATION ......................................................... 98 
C
OURSE 
D
ESIGN AND 
D
EVELOPMENT
.............................................................................................................. 98 
O
NLINE 
T
UTORING
.......................................................................................................................................... 98 
Who Are the Tutors? .................................................................................................................................. 98 
What Do the Tutors Do? ............................................................................................................................ 99 
Human Tutoring vs. Machine Tutoring.................................................................................................... 100 
Individual and Group Tutoring................................................................................................................ 101 
Online and Offline Tutoring..................................................................................................................... 102 
Asyncronous Tutoring.............................................................................................................................. 103 
A
CCREDITATION OF 
O
NLINE 
C
OURSES
........................................................................................................... 104 
A
SSESSMENT
................................................................................................................................................. 105 
Summative Assessment............................................................................................................................. 106 
Formative Assessment.............................................................................................................................. 106 
Assessment Methods................................................................................................................................. 107 
Combinations of Assessment Methods ..................................................................................................... 108 
Tutor Assessment ..................................................................................................................................... 108 
Self assessment ........................................................................................................................................ 110 
Computer Assessment .............................................................................................................................. 110 
Peer Assessment....................................................................................................................................... 111 
No Assessment.......................................................................................................................................... 111 
E
NROLLMENT AND 
P
ROGRESS 
F
LEXIBILITY
................................................................................................... 111 
Group Enrollment and Progress.............................................................................................................. 112 
One Institution, Two Models.................................................................................................................... 114 
Individual Enrollment and Progress........................................................................................................ 114 
CHAPTER 8. THE FUTURE OF ONLINE EDUCATION......................................................................... 116 
M
ORE 
W
EB
COURSES
.................................................................................................................................... 117 
A
DDITIONAL 
S
ERVICES
.................................................................................................................................. 117 
B
ETTER 
Q
UALITY
.......................................................................................................................................... 118 
T
RAINING OF 
T
EACHERS
................................................................................................................................ 118 
C
OLLABORATION
........................................................................................................................................... 119 
P
OLICY AND 
O
RGANIZATION
.......................................................................................................................... 119 
M
ISCELLANEOUS
........................................................................................................................................... 120 
CHAPTER 9. BARRIERS TO SUCCESSFUL ONLINE EDUCATION ................................................... 122 
F
INANCIAL 
B
ARRIERS
.................................................................................................................................... 122 
R
ESISTANCE TO 
C
HANGE
............................................................................................................................... 122 
B
ANDWIDTH 
L
IMITATIONS
............................................................................................................................. 123 
A
CCESS 
L
IMITATIONS
.................................................................................................................................... 123 
I
NSUFFICIENT 
S
EARCH 
F
ACILITIES AND 
C
OPYRIGHT 
I
SSUES
........................................................................... 124 
B
ARRIERS TO 
O
NLINE 
A
SSESSMENT
.............................................................................................................. 124 
CHAPTER 10. STRATEGIC RECOMMENDATIONS TO ONLINE EDUCATORS AND POLICY 
MAKERS ......................................................................................................................................................... 126 
P
ROMOTE NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL HARMONIZATION OF DEGREES
, 
CERTIFICATES
, 
CREDITS
, 
AND GRADES 
TO FACILITATE ONLINE MOBILITY OF STUDENTS
............................................................................................. 126 
O
PPOSE NATIONAL REGULATIONS THAT INHIBITS INSTITUTIONS FROM CHARGING TUITION FEES
.................... 126 
F
OCUS ON COST EFFECTIVE ONLINE EDUCATION
............................................................................................ 126 
9












  

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