annually like: Taxation, accounting and legal studies. 
IGNOU use CD ROM for heavy audio and video content. They have limited clips of audio 
and video on the web, but heavy audio and graphics are called up from a CD ROM. Some of 
the activity is Java based, but they try to avoid Java because it is too costly. The chart system 
in WEBCT is Java based. Assignments are submitted as attachments to a bulletin board. 
Tutoring is by lecturing staff. IGNOU don't use machine tutoring, except from FAQs. They 
don t recommend synchronous communication because it damages the flexibility of the 
system, but they have some group tutoring to classes of 24. IGNOU use e mail, conferencing 
and chat rooms, but the students do not use chat rooms a lot. 
There is no emphasis on SAQs. They use TMAs a lot and they are marked by the lecturing 
staff. CMAs are used a little: quizzes with a database behind them. Assessment is formative 
rather than summative and there are no examinations. There is no peer assessment, but 
occasional joint projects. 
Accreditation includes diplomas, certificates, and statement of completion. This course so far 
is free to learners, as it is a pilot project. Enrolment is flexible, but in some courses students 
have to wait until a class of 10 is accumulated. They have today 2,500 enrolments in 15 
subjects, with 50 more in development. 
The number of students is 70, though a large part of these take part in other face to face 
courses at the school. There are some open modules on the site and information pages. 
This is a pilot project and did not receive any direct state or public funding. The designers see 
the price of internet calls (on an upward trend) as a major problem for the development of 
these type of courses. 
The designers of the course feel that the state is not approaching the development of web 
training as seriously as it might. They are not aware of any state sponsored studies or projects 
in this area. 
Australia and Oceania 
The Australian entries are dominated by institutions in the university and college sector. 
Among these are several of the institutions that report to have the most online students and 
courses. Australia has also a system of Technical and Further Education (TAFE) institutions 
that are advanced providers of web courses. The Australian institutions are among the largest 
and most advanced in this analysis. Since the courses also are provided in English, Australian 
institutions should be very competitive in the emerging global market. 
Some of the Australian institutions are described in the following. 
Wodonga Institute of TAFE (
) offers courses in management and 
leadership, electronics and electrotechnology, information technology, professional 
development, nursing, and welding supervision. These courses are available to post secondary 
students. They can be undertaken in conjunction with traditional on campus courses or print 



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