In the paper Technology, Distance Education and National Development, Bates (1997) 
presents three models of international technology based distance delivery: 
1.  Direct delivery to individuals in another country. 
2.  Inter institutional direct delivery from one country to another. 
3.  Joint partnership between institutions in different countries. 
In Distance Education across National Borders, Mason (1994) distinguishes between four 
categories of intercultural courses: 
1.  Franchise Type: in which one partner designs, develops, examines and makes awards, 
while the other recruits students and provides support mechanisms. 
2. Marketplace Type: in which one institution purchases course materials from the other, 
adapts and delivers them and examines learners and awards credits. 
3.  Collaborative Type: in which several institutions jointly design and develop courses 
which they use in their respective institutions independently of each other. 
4.  Technology Based Type: in which students from other countries access the host 
institution via electronic communication (possibly enhanced by printed materials, 
occasional videoconferences or even face to face meetings). 
Independent of which type an institution chooses, the pivotal issue of global courses is how 
well cultural issues are addressed. These issues include language, educational tradition, 
perception of educational imperialism, national policy on certification and transfer of credit, 
and local support structures. 
The four institutions listed as transnational in the catalogue are the International 
Telecommunication Union [1], LEB [2], Nordisk Netthogskole [3], and The African Virtual 
University [4] (Case Study 1). These institutions are very different as described in the 
following paragraphs. 
The International Telecommunication Union [1] (
) reports to have 200 
students in 3 courses. In the framework of its activities aimed at fostering the use of 
information technologies in the telecommunication training sector in developing countries, the 
ITU has developed the Virtual Training Center (VTC). The aim of the center is to offer 
services typically provided by a traditional training center, online. It also aims at satisfying 
some of the new training requirements generated by a modern, information oriented society. 
Services offered include the access to information (for example about material and courses 
available, service providers), access to training material, distance tutoring and participation in 
virtual classes, distance consultancy services, etc. The VTC currently offers the following 
non accredited web based courses: Developing Distance Learning Material, Using the Internet 
for Distance Learning, and Spectrum Management. These courses make extensive use of the 
web for access to course resources, student interaction with tutor and fellow students, access 
and submission of assignments, and asynchronous discussions. Additional courses with 
similar characteristics are under development: Business Management Development Plan, 
Frontline Management, Wireless Access Systems, and so on. 
LEB [2] (
) is an initiative to share Internet 
information to the Hispanic people. It provides non formal education translated to Spanish 



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