All four assessment categories could be used for both formative and summative assessment. 
Teachers and course designers may benefit from using the matrix presented below to plan an 
assessment scheme. 
Table 10. Assessment matrix 
Formative assessment 
Summative assessment 
Tutor assessment  
Self assessment  
Computer assessment 
Peer assessment  
This author s assignment analyses (Paulsen 1998, 181) of 23 online courses revealed 14 
instances of tutor assessment, 11 of self assessment, 6 of peer assessment, and 5 of computer 
assessment. This indicates that tutor assessment and self assessment are more common than 
peer assessment and computer assessment. Further, no course was found that applied all four 
assessment functions. In this study, the author did not distinguish between formative and 
summative assessment. 
Combinations of Assessment Methods 
Most of the institutions apply several assessments methods in a course or program. This is 
illustrated with the following examples: 
   <51> The assessment depends on the customers (Enterprises, Universities, simple users). 
The assessment can be made automatically, by tests and questionnaires or using a tracking 
tool. In the case of the University of Buenos Aires (one of TRAINET's clients) the 
assessment is made face to face in order to receive a University certification. 
   <4> Various forms of assessment are used depending on the originating university. 
   <58> All courses emphasize mandatory, mostly individual, assignments that are tutor 
assessed. All courses also include self tests. In addition, some courses include some use of 
computer assessed multiple choice assignments and group assignments. In some courses, 
we apply some form of peer assessment through answers to assignments submitted to the 
class conference as a basis for feedback and discussion among students. There are formal 
exams in all courses. For final grading only the formal exams count. 
   <103> Assessment is by means of tutor marked assignments and a final written 
examination. This must be taken under proctored conditions for students outside London. 
   <54> Now assessment is still a separate activity that by law is organized in study centers 
in controlled environments. A number of advanced courses build upon the elaboration of 
tasks that together form a dossier that is the base for the final evaluation, next to 
eventually a restricted summative test that checks basic knowledge. In the oncoming 
innovative competency based design (ELO) we expect that student task resolution is the 
actual base for assessment and there is no direct need to organize an extra assessment 
session in a study center. At the political/strategic level this direction is yet to be approved 
and backed with a number of procedural arrangements to be able to say that such 
assessment approaches conform to the legal regulations. 
Tutor Assessment 
Tutor assessment is the most common form of assessment found in the interviews. It is the 
only form of assessment mentioned by <38>, <69>, <71>, <75>, <74>, <84>, <6>, <109>, 



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