All four assessment categories could be used for both formative and summative assessment.
Teachers and course designers may benefit from using the matrix presented below to plan an
Table 10. Assessment matrix
This author s assignment analyses (Paulsen 1998, 181) of 23 online courses revealed 14
instances of tutor assessment, 11 of self assessment, 6 of peer assessment, and 5 of computer
assessment. This indicates that tutor assessment and self assessment are more common than
peer assessment and computer assessment. Further, no course was found that applied all four
assessment functions. In this study, the author did not distinguish between formative and
Combinations of Assessment Methods
Most of the institutions apply several assessments methods in a course or program. This is
illustrated with the following examples:
<51> The assessment depends on the customers (Enterprises, Universities, simple users).
The assessment can be made automatically, by tests and questionnaires or using a tracking
tool. In the case of the University of Buenos Aires (one of TRAINET's clients) the
assessment is made face to face in order to receive a University certification.
<4> Various forms of assessment are used depending on the originating university.
<58> All courses emphasize mandatory, mostly individual, assignments that are tutor
assessed. All courses also include self tests. In addition, some courses include some use of
computer assessed multiple choice assignments and group assignments. In some courses,
we apply some form of peer assessment through answers to assignments submitted to the
class conference as a basis for feedback and discussion among students. There are formal
exams in all courses. For final grading only the formal exams count.
<103> Assessment is by means of tutor marked assignments and a final written
examination. This must be taken under proctored conditions for students outside London.
<54> Now assessment is still a separate activity that by law is organized in study centers
in controlled environments. A number of advanced courses build upon the elaboration of
tasks that together form a dossier that is the base for the final evaluation, next to
eventually a restricted summative test that checks basic knowledge. In the oncoming
innovative competency based design (ELO) we expect that student task resolution is the
actual base for assessment and there is no direct need to organize an extra assessment
session in a study center. At the political/strategic level this direction is yet to be approved
and backed with a number of procedural arrangements to be able to say that such
assessment approaches conform to the legal regulations.
Tutor assessment is the most common form of assessment found in the interviews. It is the
only form of assessment mentioned by <38>, <69>, <71>, <75>, <74>, <84>, <6>, <109>,