Chapter 9. Barriers to Successful Online Education 
There are a number of barriers that must be overcome before online education can become an 
large scale success. Among them are financial barriers, resistance to change, bandwidth 
limitations, access limitations, insufficient search facilities, copyright issues, and barriers to 
online assessment. 
Financial Barriers 
The financial barriers are important. The analysis showed that few institutions had substantial 
income from student fees. At the same time, the cost of development and maintenance could 
be high: 
   <5> Economic factors will be the main determinants in the development of education on 
the web. Many universities are unplanned and there will be a shake out. The costs of 
maintenance of large scale systems will cause problems. We are not going to go for bells 
and whistles. We are going to control our own servers and control our own system. 
   <78> This is a pilot project and did not receive any direct state or public funding. The 
designers see the price of internet calls (on an upward trend) as a major problem for the 
development of these type of courses. The designers of the course feel that the state is not 
approaching the development of web training as seriously as it might. They are not aware 
of any state sponsored studies or projects in this area. 
   <45> Though Flexible learning feels that the www is not used very much in Ireland they 
feel that future of web is bright. However some basic problems still persist for the 
expansion of the medium. A considerable investment is required to get the equipment 
necessary to do a web course. 
In addition, national regulations in some countries, for example Sweden and Germany, denies 
institutions the opportunity to charge tuition fees. This is pointed out by two Swedish 
institutions <86, 87> and perceived as a problem at the University of Munich <34> and 
Saarland s University <35> in Germany. A third German institution elaborates on the issue: 
   <35> Concerning the future, there is a big question mark. If the German State and the 
University wish to realize more distance education programs and web based learning 
environments they have to find answers and regulations on how to offer these kinds of 
courses. At present there is no real legal bases for this kind of courses, and as we are not 
allowed to take money, even from foreign students, and second there is difficulty in 
getting official accreditation for students of other departments. These kinds of courses may 
take more than six times as much resources than on campus courses. The main problem 
lies in resources for development, although also moderating the courses takes a lot of time. 
Resistance to Change 
Some interviewees reflected on the our intrinsic resistance to chance: 
   <69> The future will be promoted by the convergence of different means. There are 
several limitations to point out, namely: 1) resistance to change and to innovation   mainly 
in what concerns the training offer   to change the process of training is to change 
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