mentalities and to change the procedures of the trainers; 2) digital contents   again the 
trainers must have a new role and face changes; 3) technological limitations   access and 
   <75> The tendency is to grow. How fast we do not know. The internet has continuously 
surprised us, but there is still the cultural difficulties and the resistance to change. Other 
difficulties are related with technological and economic barriers. 
Bandwidth Limitations 
Others referred to bandwidth limitations: 
   <83> The future depends on communication lines. The capacity and speed of the lines 
limit the use of the web for training purposes. 
   <84> Depending on the course, the type of media combination to be used is decided upon. 
WWW is used for its contents, for interactivity. There is some experience with sound and 
video (very slow). 
   <57> Massey University has a policy committee for online teaching. Massey is a large 
New Zealand distance education provider. We find WebCT acceptable and it has its ups 
and downs. Our major priority is to copy audio and video to CD ROMs and to get the CD 
ROMs onto WebCT. There are three reasons for this: the students do not have machines 
for web audio or video; 90% do, however, have CD ROM drives; New Zealand does not 
today have the bandwidth. One has to remember that there are massive copyright problems 
in New Zealand: you cannot reproduce anything electronically on the web. 
   <37> We use different kinds of media to deliver content in our web based courses: 
HTML sites with Java scripts, streaming audio/video, PDF files for download. Beside the 
web based courses we offer lectures using a videoconferencing system. Many of our 
customers work at home connected to the web via modem or ISDN. Due to the low 
bandwidth of this connection voluminous materials like CBT's are delivered on CD 
Access Limitations 
Limited access to the Internet is an obvious barrier: 
   <84> The introduction to the use of the internet is very slow. There is a need for 
dissemination actions. 
   <42> One has to realize that access to the internet in India is very, very difficult. Internet 
access was impossible a few years ago. Now we have 2.000 of the university s 300.000 
students on the web. 
   <71> Some questions: info exclusion, large gap between rich and poor, democracy. It is a 
generation problem, the Primary Schools will take 30 years, the collaborative work will be 
promoted, the teacher will have another role. 
   <35> Communication is very important, and there are moderators facilitating all the 
discussions, which take place in small groups, and there are tutoring which is done by the 
professional academics, professors at the university, and also by former course 
participants. Also optional videoconferencing (web based) facilities are used. However, 
among 180 participants only 8 have had the necessary equipment for doing that. 



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