Insufficient Search Facilities and Copyright Issues 
Insufficient search facilities and copyright issues were also mentioned as barriers: 
   <80> The problems raised are related with the extent of information available. That is, the 
web is like a labyrinth, and we can lose ourselves more then in a library. If we think of 
virtual class, for instance, it is necessary that the users manipulate very well the search 
systems, they can search by logical words or by relevant information. That is, there will be 
added value services that will make it easier for the user the access all information. 
   <57> WWW plus paper is the model. There are very severe copyright restrictions on 
electronic reproduction in New Zealand and thus we are forced to use paper. This is also a 
form of transferal of costs to the student. The basic structure is WebCT, plus private mail, 
plus the chat function which is widely used by the students. Graphics are taken from an 
image archive and from external links. 
Barriers to Online Assessment 
The interviews testify that there are a number of barriers to effective use of online assessment: 
Among them are public and institutional regulations, traditions for physical attendance, 
technical limitations, student identification, and detection of plagiarized digital material. 
Some statements that support this are listed below: 
   <8> No assignments. All by projects which are print based. We don t like assessment on 
the web and are conscious of security issues. Continuous assessment is preferred to 
   <54> Now assessment is still a separate activity that by law is organized in study centers 
in controlled environments. A number of advanced courses build upon the elaboration of 
tasks that together form a dossier that is the base for the final evaluation, next to 
eventually a restricted summative test that checks basic knowledge. In the oncoming 
innovative competency based design (ELO) we expect that student task resolution is the 
actual base for assessment and there is no direct need to organize an extra assessment 
session in a study center. At the political/strategic level this direction is yet to be approved 
and backed with a number of procedural arrangements to be able to say that such 
assessment approaches conform to the legal regulations. 
   <57> No SAQs, no CMAs. There is no electronic submission of assignments because the 
university does not encourage electronic submission of assignments. All are hard copy to 
the lecturers.  
   <12> Students may submit electronically but there is no electronic marking or return of 
corrected assignments. No official examinations are on the web. The 20 year history of our 
distance education provision continues: students go to schools, libraries, colleges etc to do 
their examinations. 
   <78> Assessment has proved to be the biggest problem for this project. The self scoring 
java tests are useful but the age profile of the student means that they may not take them as 
seriously as they should. It has meant a stretch on the personnel involved in the project. It 
has proved straightforward to assess the theoretical parts of the courses but the practical 
elements have given rise to problems. This has not yet been solved. 
   <44> Assessment is carried by the lecturing staff in the way that face to face parts of the 
courses are assessed. 
   <73> There is no assessment. There is no legal framework to allow an electronic 
certificate. At this moment DIGITO FORMACAO promotes courses on the internet to 



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