and teacher training programs should be developed and made available for the teachers. The 
survey revealed that a number of such courses exist, but as additional research and experience 
on CMC teaching become available, more and better courses should be developed. Further, 
the literature review and the interviews indicate that the workload is especially high the first 
time one teaches a CMC course, and that material developed for one course could be used 
again in other courses. A group of teachers could possibly also benefit from collaboration and 
exchange of experience and course material. To facilitate teacher collaboration, the 
organization could organize face to face seminars and online faculty lounges for their 
2. Establish a system for technical and administrative support. Some of the teachers 
suggested that support staff or the supporting organization should handle some functions for 
the teachers. For example, technical questions could probably be handled better by the 
technical support staff, and administrative requests could probably be answered better and 
more efficiently by the administrative staff. Even senior students could be engaged to support 
new students in order to relieve teachers from trivial support work. 
3. Shift attention from spontaneous interactive teaching to deliberate course design. Moore 
(1990, 348) argued that "...preactive teaching is deliberative, a highly rationale process, 
interactive teaching is more spontaneous and to some extent controlled by students  questions, 
requests, and reactions." Moore s argument entails that the interactive workload depends more 
on the number of enrolled students than the preactive workload does. Similarly, the 
interviewees  advice on how teachers could handle more than 100 students indicates that the 
interactive workload could be decreased through careful preactive design and preparation. The 
course designers should also carefully consider which teaching techniques are suitable for the 
course. So, one possible way to handle high enrollment is to adapt the large scale model with 
more emphasis on course design. 
4. Pay special attention to the assessment workload per student when you design course 
assignments. The number and form of course assignments are especially important for the 
teacher workload. So, the course designers should pay especial attention to the teacher 
workload generated by the assignments. The teachers  assessment workload could be reduced 
considerably by substituting teacher assessment with peer , computer , or self assessment. 
Further, group assignments could entail less teacher assessment than individual assignments 
5. Restrict teacher interaction with individual students and small groups of students. Since the 
interactive workloads seem to be high in one to one techniques and in many to many 
techniques with high teacher involvement, high enrollment courses may have to use less of 
these interactive techniques even though they are perceived to have high learner outcome. 
These results support Bates (1991, 13) when he stated that the technology does not bring 
economies of scale unless the opportunities for interaction for individual students are 
dramatically curtailed. 
6. Encourage and facilitate interaction among students. Students should be regarded as a 
resource for mutual learning. Services, teaching techniques, and assignments could be 
designed to encourage and facilitate interaction among students. Former students could 
become active alumni and be encouraged to participate in some interaction. 



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