Table 3.2. Timing Values from Measurement
context switch
0.050 ms
interrupt oh
0.010 ms
tcp connection
0.145 ms
cache read time
(0.002048   S)
disk read time
(28+(0.08192   S)+ ((S/44) 1) 14)
V IA net latency
(0.03 + 0.007987   S)
V IA processong latency
(0.003 + 0.007987   S)
nic send gap
0.032 ms
data is larger than 44 KBytes, it needs additional 14 ms for every 44 KBytes. Cache
read time, disk read time and network latency are dependent on the message size [27, 3].
Table 3.3 shows the distribution models used in this study for incoming request
intervals and the size of Web files. The inter arrival time of the requests is modeled
by the Pareto distribution, where k in the inter arrival time distribution represents the
minimum arrival interval of the clients. In the simulation, k is varied to control the
load of the web cluster. Since many studies have supported that the characteristics of
Web server follow the long tail distribution[31, 32, 64], we use the Pareto distribution
to model the Web file size and the incoming request interval. However, since the Pareto
distribution itself does not fit well to model the small size of Web files, the Lognormal
distribution model is also used [52, 7]. The Lognormal distribution models the body part
(resource size is less than 10 KBytes) of web files, while Pareto captures the distribution
of files with large sizes, where p is maximum size of the Web files, k
is the minimum size
and   is the Pareto shape parameter. In our experiment, the client processes calculate
the requesting file size according to the Lognormal and Pareto distribution models, and



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