Chapter 4
A Load Balancing Scheme
for Cluster based Secure Application Servers
For Web based applications, poor response time has significant financial implica 
tions [42]. For example, E Biz [76] reported about $1.9 billion loss in revenue in 1998
due to long response time resulting from the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) [72], which
is commonly used for secure communication between clients and Web servers. Even
though SSL is the de facto standard for transport layer security, its high overhead and
poor scalability are two major problems in designing secure large scale network servers.
Deployment of SSL can decrease a server's capacity by up to two orders of magnitude
In addition, the overhead of SSL becomes even more severe in application servers.
Application servers provide dynamic content and this content requires secure mecha 
nisms for protection. Generating dynamic content takes about 100 to 1000 times more
time than simply reading static content [42]. Moreover, since static content is seldom
updated, they can easily cached. Several efficient caching algorithms [58, 22] have been
proposed to reduce latency and increase throughput of front end Web services. How 
ever, because dynamic content is generated during the execution of a program, caching



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