47
4.2
Related Work
In this section, we summarize the prior studies related to this research. In a
single Web server environment, the cost of the SSL layer was studied by Apostolopoulos
et al.[8] using the Netscape Enterprise Server and Apache Web server, and it was shown
that the session reuse is critical for improving the performance of Web servers.
Recent studies on data centers have focused on cluster based Web servers [13, 23,
47], and the following works are related to our research. M. Aron et al.[13] have pro 
posed the backend request forwarding scheme in cluster based Web servers for support 
ing HTTP1.1 persistent connections. The client requests are directed by a content blind
webswitch to a Web server in the cluster by a simple distribution scheme such as Round 
Robin DNS. The first node that receives the request is called the initial node. The initial
node parses the request and determines whether to service it by itself or forward it to
another node based on the cache and load balance information. The forwarded request
is sent back to the initial node for responding to the client. However, this study does not
consider the impact of user level communication and SSL enabled application servers.
C. Azma et al.[6] have explored the characteristics of several Web sites, including
auction, online bookstore and bulletin board sites, using synthetic benchmarks. In their
study, an online bookstore benchmark reveals that CPU in the database server is the
bottleneck, while auction and bulletin board sites show that CPU in the Web server is
the bottleneck. E. Cecchet et al.[24] examined the performance and scalability issues in
Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) applications. They modeled an online auction site like eBay
and experimented it by several EJB implementations. Their test shows that CPU on EJB












  

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