Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) [72], which operates between the HTTP and TCP
network layers, is the most popular tool that provides a secure channel between a client
and a Web server. Especially, most Web servers/data centers supporting e commerce
applications deploy SSL to provide enhanced security to Web traffic. In 1999, SSL was
adopted by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) as a standard and is newly
named as Transport Layer Security (TLS) [4, 72]. SSL is composed of two components:
a handshaking procedure and a bulk data encryption procedure.
Client  Hello 
Authenticating Server 
Server Hello 
Server Certificate 
Authenticating Client(optional) 
 Client Certificate 
Data Exchange 
Client Key exchange 
End of Negotiation 
Data Transfer 
Fig. 4.1. The SSL Protocol
The handshaking procedure triggers when a connection is initiated between a Web
server and a client [72]. During this phase, a server and a client authenticate each other
and negotiate encryption algorithms and required session keys using an asymmetric key



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