algorithm such as RSA, before they transmit or receive data. Since all data between
a server and a client are encrypted using symmetric keys, the channel between them
is private. The bulk data encryption offers two services: data encryption and message
digest. Data encryption is done with a symmetric key algorithm such as Triple DES
or RC4. Message transport includes a message integrity check using a keyed MAC. A
secure hash function such as SHA1 or MD5 is used for MAC computations.
Figure 4.1 shows the detailed handshaking procedure required to initiate a new
session. A client initiates a connection with a server by sending a Client Hello message
that includes the session ID, a random number, cipher suites and other required infor 
mation. After receiving the Client Hello, the server sends a Server Hello including its
certificate and other information as the reply. With the certification of the server, the
client finishes the authentication of the server. Depending on the server side configura 
tion, the next procedure for the client authentication is optional. If it is requested, the
client needs to send its certificate to the server for verification. After the authenticating
procedures, the client generates session keys for encryption and decryption of data. The
session is identified by the session ID that is shared between the client and server.
To amortize the high overhead of the handshaking protocol, a session can be
reused when re establishing the connection. The SSL protocol allows a server to config 
ure the session time. During the session time, a server caches the session information of
clients. Whenever a client requests a new connection within its session time, the server
reuses the cached session state to generate a set of keys for the new session and saves the



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