87
categories are classified as Others. These types are recognized by file extensions. For
instance, jpg, gif, and jpeg are classified as image files, the au, wav and mp3 are classified
as audio files, and cgi and php are classified as dynamic files. Application category
includes files which require to launch other applications to show them, such as doc, pdf
and ps and compressed file (i.e. tar and gzip). For the UCB trace, we omit the dynamic
files because this trace is modified to hide the real Web server transaction. It is hard
to distinguish each dynamic request. The PSU and UCB traces show the characteristic
consistent with the previous studies [33, 68, 9] in that about 90% references of the client
requests are for either HTML or image files. However, in the CSE trace, only about
67% of files are HTML and image files. It also shows an increasing number of references
for the multimedia files. Due to the large size of multimedia files, the percentage of
the transferred bytes is more than 45%. In addition, the CSE trace shows that 12% of
references is for the application files. Since the application files are usually large in size,
the percentage of the byte transferred for the application files is more than 32% (Table
5.2) and the percentage of file size of application files in the server (Table 5.3) is more
than 53%.
5.5.2
References of Web Content
Next, we analyze the references of the Web content. Zipf's law depicts the size y
(i.e., the number of occurrence) of an event relative to it's rank r [48], which is given by
y   r
,
(5.1)












  

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