106
the other hand, the throughput improvement with the original server configuration is
7%, 11%, and 28.8%, respectively. In summary, the inclusive caching still shows the best
performance under all circumstances. The throughput of the inclusive caching is 19%,
17% and 6.4% higher than those of the original server with PCI X, PCI Express and
memory attached I/O.
5.7.4
Scalability Analysis
In a distributed Web server, each node needs to broadcast some metadata (includ 
ing load information and a list of cached data/files) to the other nodes. As the number
of nodes increases, the broadcast incurs extra network overhead, which may hamper the
remote requests. However, our experiments on cache replacement (to be discussed in
the next section) indicate that cached data items on a node are not frequently changed
since they are primarily static in nature. Moreover, efficient mechanisms to broadcast
the node information (such as the piggy back technique) can minimize performance loss
[23].
In this experiment, we evaluate the scalability of the proposed scheme with 16, 32
and 64 nodes. Figure 5.14 shows the throughput using the CSE trace. In this experiment,
the inclusive scheme shows up to 13% throughput improvement compared to the original
model with 1000 and 2000 clients. As the number of nodes increases, the throughput
difference between them becomes larger, because the requests are mostly served by the
remote nodes. It is observed that more than 90% of the requests is served by the remote
NIC caches with a 64 node cluster. Since the NIC caching scheme reduces latency by












  

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